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Vol. 56. Issue 212.
(October - December 2021)
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Vol. 56. Issue 212.
(October - December 2021)
Original Article
Prevalence and predisposition to deep vein thrombosis in professional male soccer players
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Franchek Drobnica,*, Jose Manuel Gonzalez de Susob, Antonio Turmo-Garuzc,*, Mindaugas Gudelisa, Xavier Vallea, Xavier Peiraud, Juan Carlos Soutoe, José Román Escuderof,g, José Manuel Soriag
a Medical Services FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
b Medical Services Real Sociedad de Fútbol SAD, San Sebastián, Spain
c Unitat de Salut, Centre Alt Rendiment, Sant Cugat del Vallés, Spain
d INEFC Campus Lleida, Spain
e Unidad de Trombosis y Hemostasia, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
f Servicio de Cirugía Vascular y Endovascular, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
g Genomic of Complex Diseases Group, Research Institute of Hospital de la Sant Creu i Sant Pau, IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
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Tables (5)
Table 1. Patient characteristics, clinical diagnosis and initial treatment provided.
Table 2. Possible predisposing factors.
Table 3. Diagnostic methods used, treatment and estimated healing time.
Table 4. Genetic predisposition towards deep vein thrombosis in the four affected players.
Table 5. Genetic predisposition to deep vein thrombosis in the 73 players who suffered no thrombotic event.
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Abstract

The long recovery time required after deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or other serious manifestations of venous thromboembolic disease, can lead to a reduction in sporting condition and economic losses. Neither are such events always free of clinical sequelae.

Objective

This study examines the prevalence of DVT in male, professional soccer players in Spain.

Methods

A questionnaire on DVT events experienced by players in the ongoing 2015-16 season, and the previous 10 seasons, was sent to the medical services of all first and second division clubs in Spain. The genetic predisposition of those who suffered an event was investigated using the inCode thrombus test, as well as in 73 players who experienced no such event.

Results

Four subjects were diagnosed with DVT via clinical history and ultrasound or D-dimer determination. This associated prevalence (1.2/1000) is higher than reported (1/10,000) for this age group in the general population (18-35 years). All four affected players carried a risk allele (A1) at the ABO locus, three were homozygous for the risk allele of FactorXIII, and one was heterozygous for a risk allele of FactorXII. Among the 73 players who experienced no DVT, 3 high risk genetic variants associated with thromboembolic events were detected in 7 players (9.6%), either in the SERPINA_A10, FactorV, FactorXII, or FactorXIII genes.

Conclusion

DVT prevalence in professional soccer players is higher than expected for the same age segment, and highlights how genetic predisposition towards thromboembolic processes and sport-associated environmental risk factors work in tandem in the DVT appearance.

Keywords:
Thromboembolic disease
Genetics of thrombosis
Personalized medicine
Abbreviations:
VTED
DVT
PTE
NOACS
LMWH
All
AEMEF

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